Group A beta haemolytic streptococci are the most common causes of bacterial throat infection or pharyngitis, but many other bacteria can cause throat infection in humans. Types of such bacteria are mycoplasma pneumoniae, bordetella pertussis, streptococcus pneumonia, bacilus anthracis, haemophilus influenzae, chlamydophila pneumoniae corynebacterium diphtheriae and neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Streptococcal pharyngitis is the most common cause of bacterial pharyngitis. 15-30% of bacterial pharyngitis is caused by beta hemolytic streptococci. Fever, sore throat and swelling of the lymph glands are the most common symptoms of the streptococcal pharyngitis and it is an infectious diseases. It can be easily transmitted to the people that are in close contact with the patient. The precise diagnosis of this infection is made through examination of throat culture. In case positive diagnosis, antibiotic treatment is applied to the patient to prevent the complications that may develop and also to accelerate the healing of the patient.
Diphtheria is an upper respiratory tract infection that is usually severe and potentially life-threatening, causing laryngitis. This infection is caused by corynebacterium diphteria. Diphtheria infection is not as common as before due to widespread vaccination that takes place in developed countries. Antibiotic treatment is effective in diphtheria in the early phase, but the healing process is slow.
Nasopharyngitis is usually observed as a simple cold. Nazo refers to the the nostrils, whereas pharynx refers to the oesophagus. So this is the infection of the throat area, where the nasal cavity that is behind the nose connects to the pharynx region before the tonsils. The throat has normally a reddish and pinkish color. The presence of inflammation in the throat leads to a very intense red color, with white inflammation on it. Antibiotic therapy may be necessary because of the possibility of a bacterial nasopharyngitis or sinusitis in cases, where a yellowish and inflamed discharge is seen to be excreted from this region.
Pharyngitis due to Fungi
Some pharyngitis is caused by fungal infections of the genus candida albicans.
Throat Infections for Reasons Other than Infections
Pharyngitis may also be caused by cold air, hot drinks, gastric acid reflux, thermal, chemical and mechanical irritations.