Epiglottitis is one of the life-threatening conditions in which air entrainment in the lungs is blocked with swelling of the cartilaginous structure called epiglottis or "laryngeal cap" located in the throat area. Epiglottitis is a septic infection that can progress rapidly and be life-threatening. If the patient presentation is dyspnea, a serious condition should be suspected.
Signs and symptoms
• Sore throat and dysphagia; Pain in the throat can be serious enough to prevent swallowing. In the worst case, his mouth is watered because he can not swallow the patient's saliva.
• High fever that usually occurs rapidly
• Severe course of the disease is predicted by underlying diseases such as dyspnea, stridor, rapid disease progression, mouth watering, speech impairment, H. influenzae bacteremia, leukocytosis, typical postmenopausal it is.
Since passing on Epiglottite in children, it has been caused almost exclusively by type B bacteria called Haemophilus influenzae. Due to the widespread use of the Hib vaccine, Haemophilus epiglottite is rare nowadays. •Haemophilus epiglottite is possible, although there are usual causative organisms of unvaccinated adult populations, pneumococci, streptococci and staphylococci. In immunocompromised patients, epiglottite can be caused by mycetes.
How is treatment of epiglottis?
The most important process is to keep the airway open. Patients with respiratory distress should be provided with an upright seated, endotracheal tube or, if necessary, tracheotomy. If hypoxia is given oxygen should be given. The vein should be kept open and sedated if there is anxiety enough to make breathing difficult. The majority of steroids have not been shown. An anthibiotics should be given absolutely. Ceftriaxone (3×750-1500 mg / day in adult, 100-150 mg / kg / day in child, 3 doses in child), i.v. It is the first drug of choice. If not available, ampicillin + chloramphenicol can be used. Usually 7 days treatment is sufficient.