Laryngeal or throat cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled growth of epithelial cells covering mainly the larynx leading to the destruction of peripheral structures. This type of cancer of the laryngeal cancers that originate from the covering layer is called squamous cell carcinoma and constitutes most of the malignant tumors that appear in this organ. Laryngeal cancers, like other malignant tumors, become life-threatening when they go without treatment and spread to lymph appendages and other organs of the body (metastasis).
In medical terms, tumor refers to any type of uncontrolled cell growth, including cancer. This growth may be malignant or benign. In general, malignant tumors continue to grow uncontrollably in areas where they invade and damage the tissues and spread to the surrounding lymph nodes and other organs of the body, in other words metastasis, and they continue to grow in the newly spreaded areas. Eventually this process becomes life-threatening.
About 90% of laryngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinoma (epidermoid cancer), which covers the throat and arises from the covering layer that is named as epithelium. This type of cancer is the most faced cancer in the regions of mouth, throat and pharynx. Squamous cell carcinoma also has subtypes such as verrucous cancer, basaloid squamous cell carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma.
Apart from squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic cancer, mucoepidermoid cancer, acinic cell cancer originating from microscopic salivary glands within the epithelial layer or chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma originating from the cartilage forming the skeleton of the throat or angiosarcoma originating from the veins or neuroendocrine cancer originating from the soft tissues and other tissues that can be found in the throat as well as small cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma are among the other types of throat cancer.